Just about every camera body these days has a setting for bracketing. Bracketing is shooting the same photo at a few different exposures, usually plus/minus the meter reading. This can be used for tricky shots when you’re not sure about the correct exposure.
In recent years HDR photography has become all the rage (sometimes literally, Google it). HDR is short for High Dynamic Range, and it involves shooting a scene at a range of exposures, then combining the resulting images digitally to increase the dynamic range of the image.